Life Technologies

Swine Sampling-Cervical-Swabs-Semen-Urine

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2 Life Technologies | Animal Health Detection of bacterial pathogens of the urogenital tract—Cervical swabs, semen, and urine can be tested by culture for the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens causing urinary tract diseases (UTD) and/or reproductive disorders in either boars or sows. Pathogens include Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Brucella spp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, E. coli, Leptospira spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi, etc. A careful interpretation is recommended when multiple commensals of the skin or the mucosa of the urogenital tract, such as S. aureus or S. suis, are found in swabs or body fluids; such findings are often associated with contamination during sampling. Detection of viral pathogens and Chlamydia spp. RNA/DNA (PCR-based tests)— The presence of UTD or reproductive pathogens that are difficult to cultivate, such as ASF, Chlamydia spp., CSV, BVD, PHV-1, PCV-2, PRRSV, and SIV, can be confirmed in cervical swabs and semen by PCR. Animal selection Deciding which animals to take samples from depends on the desired outcome: Detection of infection—Select animals with clinical signs. Absence of infection—Select animals with clinical signs considered typical; if there are no symptoms present, take samples from animals selected at random during a walk through the shed. Keep in mind that for the purposes of monitoring (e.g., SPF status of herd), very often other material is more feasible and reliable. Sample size In either case (UTD or reproductive disorder), at group level, a minimum of 5 pigs is recommended for sampling. If symptoms are not consistent in the affected group, select at least 5 pigs per typical symptom; e.g., in a group with pigs showing either cystitis or abortion, select 5 pigs showing cystitis as the main symptom and 5 sows that have aborted during the last several days. If absence of infection is to be demonstrated, you need to sample the number of pigs according to the following table. Sample sizes may vary based on in-herd prevalence level of a disease, the tested disease itself, confidence level of the outcome, the requested test method, and the purpose of the sampling. Diagnostic use

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